The following books are recommended for studies of the Enneagram:

Ali-Shah Omar. THE SUFI TRADITION IN THE WEST

– Contains a chapter with a Sufi view of Gurdjieff and his followers.

Almaas, A.H. FACETS OF UNITY

– A former student of Naranjo– and a teacher of Maitri, Riso and Hudson– gives his analysis of the Holy Ideas connected with the Enneagram; strongly influenced by Buddhist and Sufi teachings.

Archer, N.P., ed. THE SUFI MYSTERY

– Contains an article about the Sarmoun monastery.

Aristotle. NICOMACHEAN ETHICS

Aristotle. METAPHYSICS

– Strong influence on Islamic philosophers of the Middle Ages and the contemporary work of Oscar Ichazo.

Bakhtiar, Laleh. GOD’S WILL BE DONE VOL. 1-3

– Traditional Islamic Sufi teachings connected with the Enneagram.

Barnstone, Willis. THE OTHER BIBLE: ANCIENT ALTERNATIVE SCRIPTURES

– Texts from Gnosticism, Hermeticism, Kabbalah, etc., traditions highly influential in the teachings of Gurdjieff and Ichazo.

Barry, Kieren. THE GREEK QABALAH

– Traces the development of alphabetical mysticism and numerology in the Ancient world.

Blavatsky, Madame. THE SECRET DOCTRINE

– Founder of the modern Theosophy movement; Ichazo claims to have been taught by Theosophists.

Bennett, J.G., GURDJIEFF: MAKING A NEW WORLD

– A student of Gurdjieff, Ouspensky and various Sufi teachers , Bennett gives an account of Gurdjieff’s life and teachings, and their connections with Ancient traditions.

Bennett, J.G., THE MASTERS OF WISDOM

– Exploration of a possible “Inner Circle of Humanity” with whom Gurdjieff supposedly was in contact.

Bernbaum, Edwin. THE WAY TO SHAMBHALA

– Scholarly study of the traditional myth of the existence of hidden guardians of the highest wisdom in the mountains of Central Asia.

Bliebtreu, John, ed. INTERVIEWS WITH OSCAR ICHAZO

– A collection of early interviews with Ichazo, 1973-1980.

Burke, O.M., AMONG THE DERVISHES

– Contains various references to Gurdjieff and his school and their connection with Sufism; also discusses the Sarmoun.

Cavendish, Richard. THE BLACK ARTS

– Chapters on traditional esoteric systems, such as Kabbalah, Tarot, Numerology, Alchemy, etc.; contains an interesting section on the “characters” used in numerology.

Cleary, Thomas. THE TAOIST CLASSICS, 4 vols.

– Basic texts of Chinese esotericism. Ichazo correlates his system with that of Taoism, and Gurdjieff asserts that the knowledge expressed by the Enneagram system was, “re-discovered” by the founders of China.

Collin, Rodney. THE THEORY OF CELESTIAL INFLUENCE

– A student of Ouspensky gives his theories; Collin’s Fourth Way groups were highly influential in South America, where Ichazo made contact with these ideas.

Easwaran, Eknath, trans. THE UPANISHADS.

– Basic texts of Indian esotericism.

Eliade, Mircea. SHAMANISM

– Survey of shamanism around the world; includes sections on the importance of numbers 9 and 7 in shamanic cosmologies. Ichazo studied with shamans in South America, and some say Gurdjieff’s teachings show the influence of Shamanism.

Evans-Wentz, W.Y. TIBETAN YOGA AND SECRET DOCTRINES

– Example of the kind of Hindu and Tibetan teachings which would have been circulating among Theosophists at the time Ichazo was studying with them; based on the translations of Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup.

Fortune, Dion. THE MYSTICAL QABALAH

– Discussion of the Qabalah by a former member of the Golden Dawn and student of Theosophy. Ichazo often references the Qabalah and learned it among occultist groups.

Greer, Rowan, trans. ORIGEN: AN EXHORTATION TO MARTYRDOM, PRAYER AND SELECTED WORKS.

– Ichazo cites the Neoplatonic Christian mystic Origen as an influence on his work.

Guenon, Rene. SYMBOLISM OF SACRED SCIENCE

– Studies of esoteric symbolism by a French occultist-turned Sufi dervish.

Guenon, Rene. KING OF THE WORLD

– Articles concerning the myths of a hidden center of wisdom in Central Asia.

Gurdjieff, G.I., BEELZEBUB’S TALES TO HIS GRANDSON

– Gurdjieff’s own mammoth exposition of his teaching in the form of a science-fiction novel.

Gurdjieff, G.I., MEETINGS WITH REMARKABLE MEN

– Part-biography, part-allegory, Gurdjieff recounts his early life and adventures.

Gurdjieff, G.I., VIEWS FROM THE REAL WORLD

– G’s early talks with students , c. 1914-1924.

Guthrie, K.W., THE PYTHAGOREAN SOURCE BOOK

– Compendium of Pythagorean and Neo-Pythagorean texts. The Enneagram is often traced back to Pythagoras.

Harner, Michael, ed. HALLUCINOGENS AND SHAMANISM

– Contains an article by Claudio Naranjo, based on his studies. Ichazo took ayahuasca with shamans in South America.

Hayter, Augey. FICTIONS AND FACTIONS

– Clarifies the relationship between the Sufi school of Idries Shah and the followers of G.I. Gurdjieff.

Holmyard, John. ALCHEMY

– Survey of the principal historical figures and developments in alchemy, with much material on Geber, a student of the Sufi teacher and 6th Imam, Jafar Saadiq. According to Ichazo, Jafar Saadiq was the first to speak publicly about the Enneagram.

Horney, Karen. NEUROSIS AND HUMAN GROWTH

Horney, Karen. OUR INNER CONFLICTS

– Horney’s work was highly-influential on Naranjo; she discusses 3 groups of neurotic characters.

Ichazo, Oscar. FROM METAPHYSICS TO PROTOANALYSIS

– Lectures given by Ichazo explaining his overall Arica theory.

Ichazo, Oscar. MASTER LEVEL EXERCISES

– Exposition of daily exercises used by Aricans; contains an introduction with some background material on Ichazo’s sources.

Ichazo, Oscar. LETTERS TO THE SCHOOL

– Contains Ichazo’s specific criticism of the contemporary Enneagram movement, c. 1987.

Ichazo, Oscar. THE ARICAN JOURNAL (AUTUMN 1991)

– Detailed exposition of the Arica theory; also contains Ichazo’s “Letter to the Transpersonal Community”, where he gives his views on Gurdjieff’s ideas and the background of the Enneagram.

Izutsu, Toshiro. SUFISM AND TAOISM

– Scholarly correlation of the key concepts of Sufism with those of Taoism, both traditions highly important in the work of Gurdjieff and Ichazo.

Lefort, Raphael. THE TEACHERS OF GURDJIEFF

– Sufi teaching directed at students of Gurdjieff’s work.

LePage, Victoria. SHAMBHALA

– Synthesizes much material concerning myths of a hidden center of ancient wisdom.

Lilly, John. THE CENTER OF THE CYCLONE

– Lilly’s experiences with Oscar Ichazo and his teachings as part of the early trainings in Arica, c. 1970.

Lilly, John and Antoinetta. THE DYADIC CYCLONE

– Further accounts of involvement with Ichazo and Arica.

Luibheid, Colm, trans. PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS – THE COMPLETE WORKS

– Pseudo-dionysius was a Christian Neo-Platonist of the 6th century A.D. who Ichazo cites as influential in the transmission of ideas contained in the Enneagram teaching.

Lull, Ramon. THE BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED

Lull, Ramon. THE ART OF CONTEMPLATION

Lull, Ramon. ARS MAGNA

– This christian mystic of the Middle Ages, who spent much time in the Middle East and was in contact with the Sufis, is often cited as being somehow connected with the Enneagram.

Mouravieff, Boris. GNOSIS, 3 vols.

– Correlates Fourth Way teachings of Gurdjieff/Ouspensky with those of a “previously unknown” esotericism of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Gurdjieff was educated within the Eastern Orthodox tradition and claims to have spent time at Mt. Athos.

Naranjo, Claudio. CHARACTER AND NEUROSIS

– Naranjo’s primary exposition of his version of the nine Enneagram “types”. Draws on both traditional and contemporary sources, both exoteric and esoteric.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossain. INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC COSMOLOGICAL DOCTRINES

– Scholarly analysis of the teachings of Islamic philosophers and sufis of the Middle Ages, including the idea of the nine celestal spheres. Nasr was a teacher of Bakhtiar and wrote the introduction to vol 2 of her Enneagram books, asserting the Sufi origins for the Enneagram.

Ouspensky, P.D. A NEW MODEL OF THE UNIVERSE

– Student of Gurdjieff applies knowledge gained from his time with G. to such subjects as Esoteric schools, the Tarot, the New Testament, Yoga, the Laws of Manu, Sex, “the Superman” and Eternal Recurrence.

Ouspensky, P.D. IN SEARCH OF THE MIRACULOUS

– Thorough account of Gurdjieff’s early lectures to students in Russia, c. 1915. Introduces the Enneagram.

Palmer, Helen. ENNEAGRAM

– Student of Naranjo and Speeth gives a very readible exposition of the Enneagram ideas developed in California throughout the 1970’s and ’80’s.

Papus. THE KABBALAH

– Papus was one of the most influential Martinists. Ichazo studied with Martinist teachers who were appointed by Papus to teach in South America in the early 20th century.

Patanjali. YOGA SUTRAS

– Early exposition of esoteric principles, often referenced by Ichazo.

Patterson, William. TAKING WITH THE LEFT HAND

– An orthodox Gurdjieffian gives his analysis of the contemporary Enneagram scene. Contains a great deal of background information concerning the history of the modern Enneagram.

Pauwells and Bergier. MORNING OF THE MAGICIANS

– Contains a section on the Legend of the Nine Unknowns, as well as on Gurdjieff and other esoteric subjects.

Plato. TIMAEUS

Plato. THE REPUBLIC

– These works by Plato are essential texts for esoteric studies; continuously referenced by Ichazo.

Plotinus. ENNEADS

– The original exposition of Neo-Platonic ideas. Neo-Platonism is constantly linked with Enneagram and Sufi teachings.

Regardie, Israel. THE TREE OF LIFE

– Summary of Occultist ideas circulating in the early-20th century.

Riso, Don Richard and Russ Hudon. PERSONALITY TYPES

– An ex-Jesuit and an ex-Gurdjeffian present their own ideas concerning the Enneagram types.

Scott, Ernest. THE PEOPLE OF THE SECRET

– Speculations on the idea of hidden guardians of ancient wisdom; contains a chapter on Gurdjieff, with reference to the Enneagram. Possibly anonymously co-written by J.G. Bennett.

Shah, Idries. THE SUFIS

– Introduction to Sufism from the spokesman of an Afghan Sufi family, containing a section on the Sufi ideas of Essence, the Commanding Self, and the 10 Blameable Qualities. Gurdjieff and Ichazo both claimed to have studied with Sufis in the area of Afghanistan and Central Asia.

Shah, Idries. THE WAY OF THE SUFI

– Shah asserts the Sufi background of Gurdjieff’s teachings; contains sayings of the “Sarmoun”.

Shah, Idries, ed. SUFI THOUGHT AND ACTION

– Contains an article which describes a Sufi system very similar to that described by Bakhtiar.

Shah, Idries. THE COMMANDING SELF

– Contains a chapter about the Enneagram symbol.

Speeth, Kathleen Riordan. THE GURDJIEFF WORK

– Basic introduction to Gurdjieff and his legacy. Speeth was married to Naranjo and was a teacher of Helen Palmer. Through her, many Gurdjieffian ideas entered the contemporary Enneagram scene. She has since repudiated the contemporary Enneagram of Personality.

Steiner, Rudolph. ROSICRUCIAN WISDOM

– Ichazo worked with Rosicrucians and Anthroposophists, the latter school primarily derived from Steiner.

Suzuki, D.T., INTRODUCTION TO ZEN BUDDHISM

– Ichazo received early training in Zen Buddhism.

Tart, Charles, ed. TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGIES.

– Contains chapters on the Gurdjieff Work, the Arica School, Contemporary Sufism, Yoga, Buddhism, Christian Mysticism and Western Magic.

Tart, Charles. WAKING UP.

– Very readible exposition of the ideas of G.I. Gurdjieff.

Thackston, W., trans. MYSTICAL AND VISIONARY TREATISES OF SUHRAWARDI

– Contains an introduction describing the variations on the system of 9 celestial spheres in use among the Sufis of the Middle Ages.

Trungpa, Chogyam. THE LION’S ROAR

– Introduction to basic Tantric ideas of Tibetan Buddhism; Ichazo strongly influenced by Tantric practices, many of which are used in the Arica school. Gurdjieff supposedly spent 4 years living in Tibet, studying their esoteric practices.

Waliullah, Shah. THE SACRED KNOWLEDGE OF THE HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF THE MIND

– In-depth exposition of traditional Sufi teachings concerning the structure of the human psyche and its potential for development, from an 18th century Naqshbandi Sufi.

West, John Anthony. THE SERPENT IN THE SKY

– Contains an analysis of the relationship between the Egyptian Ennead, the Pythagorean Tetractys, and the Gurdjeffian Enneagram.

Westcott, trans. THE CHALDEAN ORACLES

– The Chaldean Oracles are referred to by Ichazo as an ancient exposition of the Laws of Three and Seven, symbolized in the Enneagram. Gurdjieff claimed the Enneagram was developed in Chaldea, c. 2500 BC.

Wilson, Colin. FROM ATLANTIS TO THE SPHINX.

– Contains a section on Gurdjieff and his possible connection with a form of wisdom which existed in Ancient Egypt. Gurdjieff often referred to a knowledge that was known in “pre-sand Egypt”.

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